Glossary By Issue
- Entire Glossary
- #16 Digital Possibilities
- #15 Interactive Print
- #14 Getting Personal
- #13 Balance
- #12 Standards
- #11 Print It
- #10 Prepress
- #9 Understanding Ink
- #8 Digital Variables
- #7 Retouching
- #6 Embossing / Foil Stamping
- #5 Enhancing Color
- #4 Protective Covering
- #3 Stochastic / Conventional
- #2 Quadtones
- #1 Metallics
Achieving a net zero carbon footprint of a product, service or other organizational boundary by first reducing carbon emissions through reductions in energy and material use, switching to low or no carbon energy sources, recycling, reuse and then purchasing carbon offset credits to reduce the balance of the carbon footprint to zero. It is important to identify the scope and methodologies in making any carbon neutral claims as the methodology for measuring total carbon footprints is still evolving.
A financial instrument designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in both compliance markets (under governmental cap and trade programs) and voluntary markets. One carbon offset credit equals one metric ton of carbon dioxide equivalent. Typical projects that generate carbon offset credits include: installation of renewable energy projects such as wind, solar, biomass, hydro electricity; recovery of landfill gas (methane) produced from decomposition of waste in modern landfills; energy efficiency projects; and forestry projects that increase the sequestration capacity of a given land over is current land use (e.g. converting degraded agricultural land to a natural forest).
A third-party certified system that traces the path logs take from the forest, through the pulp manufacturing process, to the paper mill, all the way through to the certified product sold to an end-user.
An energy generation process (also referred to as combined heat and power) common at pulp and paper mills where electricity and heat are simultaneously produced from a common fuel source. In this process, a fuel source is combusted to heat water to produce high temperature and pressure steam. The steam is used to turn a turbine to produce electrical energy and then the excess heat is used for industrial processes and/or space heating. Cogeneration systems are very efficient because they capture and use energy that otherwise would be wasted.
ECF indicates paper made from either virgin or recycled fiber that is bleached using alternative chlorine compounds (such as chlorine dioxide) as a substitute for elemental chlorine. ECF bleaching reduces harmful byproducts, relative to elemental chlorine bleaching. The ECF process has been recognized by both the European Commission and the United States Environmental Protection Agency as “Best Available Technology.” According to the Alliance for Environmental Technology, more than 85 percentage of the world’s bleached chemical pulp makes use of ECF bleaching technologies.
A collective term for the following gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride, which, according to most scientists, contribute to climate change.
A paper or board product that has completed its life cycle as a consumer item and would otherwise have been disposed of as solid waste. Post-consumer materials used in the manufacture of recycled fiber include office paper, cardboard, newspapers and magazines.
Paper and board collected through commercial, residential, and industrial recycling programs for reuse as a raw material in paper and board manufacture or other products.
Volatile organic compounds are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids and include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects and are a precursor to ground-level ozone formation.